3rd PASMAE Conference Kisumu





6-11TH JULY 2003


Davie O.P. Kaambankadzanja



I would like to express my thanks and profound gratitude to the GTZ Education Technical Advisor Dr W. Goertler and MIE’s GTZ Education Advisor Dr J Wagner for their interest in Musical Arts Education, and for funding my trip to Kenya to attend this conference. I will always cherish the exposure I had with fellow musical arts professionals from across the continent. Without your support, Malawi would still have remained behind in this area.

Thanks also go to the Director of Malawi Institute of Education for allowing me to attend this conference and for his enthusiasm in Music education. The Deputy Director worked hard to liaise with GTZ to solicit sponsorship for my trip. Thank you for valuing my efforts in making Music education a reality in Malawian schools.

Finally, I wish to express my appreciation to all who worked hard on small details to make my trip a reality. I am mindful of GTZ staff in Lilongwe who finalized every single detail in good time for my trip. I am also thankful to MIE staff, especially the Acting AD-Admin and his secretary, as well as the Director and Deputy Director’s secretaries for their prompt assistance in the preparation of trip.


After having been mooted at the International Society for Music Education (ISME) World Conference in Pretoria, South Africa, in 1998, the Pan African Society for Music Education (PASME) was formed in August 2000 in Harare, Zimbabwe. A year later, in Lusaka, Zambia, PASME was. born, with the name change to the Pan African Society for Musical Arts Education (PASMAE) signifying the integrated nature of music and dance and theatre in Africa. PASMAE is affiliated to ISME, the International Society for Music Education, and in turn to the International Music Council (IMC) and UNESCO. A draft constitution was accepted in a meeting held by the general assembly in Lusaka, 2001 during the first conference (see Appendix 1).


PASMAE aims at enhancing and promoting Musical Arts Education throughout Africa

The Main Actions And Tasks of PAS MAE

The main actions and tasks of PASMAE include:

  • identifying and pooling the expertise of resource persons all over Africa and beyond
  • assessing and disseminating available, relevant literature and learning materials
  • advancing the increased use as well as methodical learning of indigenous musical
  • instruments in practical music education
  • resourcing and effectively using music materials available in a community for creativity and music theory – illustrations and exercises
  • assisting the teaching and research capability of local music teachers through local,
  • regional and pan African seminars
  • consultation and workshops.
  • dialoguing with Ministries of Education as well as curriculum
  • planners on emphasizing African music content in music education at all levels, in
  • recognition of the centrality of music in building a cultural-national identity in the global context.

Outgoing PASMAE Office Bearers

The PASMAE Executive Committee elected for the biennium 2001-2003 comprised Prof. Meld Nzewi (Nigeria) Prof. Caroline van Niekerk (South Africa) Mrs Plaxedes Chemugarira (Zimbabwe) The Director Resource Material Dr Anri Herbst. (South Africa) Secretariat Operations Manager: Ms Angie Scheepers (South Africa) The President: The Secretary-General: The Treasurer:

New office bearers for PASMAE between 2003 – 2005

As seen from the draft constitution of PAS MAE (see appendix 1), the post of treasurer was dissolved. Most positions were retained by the same office bearers because of trust and their commitment. As a new organization, many people felt it was necessary for the same people to continue with the work. All the positions except for the treasurer were retained by the same people. Each country is also supposed to choose a national representative.

Who Supports And Funds PASMAE

PASMAE gets financial support from the Prince Claus Fund in the Netherlands, SIDA, and UNESCO. ISME also assists PASMAE with funds through a generous financial contribution from The Norwegian Foreign Ministry, MMino and Norad.

PASMAE is an autonomous society, operating on a non-profit basis.


The Conference that attended by over 160 delegates from 11 countries was organised under the auspices of the Pan African Society for Musical Arts Education, the Kenyan Association for Musical Arts Education, UNESCO and ISME. The Conference offered participants an opportunity to celebrate with ISME its 50th year of Jubilee. The countries that. attended this year’s conference were Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Tanzania, Uganda, Botswana, South Africa, Kenya, Ethiopia, Ivory Coast, Ghana and Nigeria.

The Department of Music, Maseno University – the only university situated on the equator hosted the conference.

The theme of the Conference was Solutions for Musical Arts Education in Africa, and the major objective of the Conference was to provide workable solutions to the problems of music research, teaching and performance peculiar to the continent.

Conference focus areas

The conference focused on four areas. According to the nature of the focus, sessions were divided into workshops, or seminars/panel discussions, and delineated as follows:

1. Theme I: Music as science and art: The Theory of African Music Translated into Musical Arts Education Practice – Workshops and panel discussions

2. Theme II: Folklore & Games as Integrated Arts Education Workshops

3. Theme III: African Philosophy of Musical Arts Education – Panel discussions

4. Theme IV: The Use of Technology to Solve African Problems in Musical Arts Education – Seminars.

The conference programme (see appendix 3) was arranged in such a way as to allow two or more activities run concurrently.

Music education practitioners from different geographical areas who form a Musical Arts Education Action Team (MAT) identified, documented and submitted, through a delegate, common problems encountered in music education. These problems ranged from theoretical, practical, curricular to resources. The delegates reported back to the conference.

Scholars, artists and administrators in the field of music education and music in general conducted workshops, seminars based on field reports/ experiences.

The Conference Programme

  • Besides the activities on music, the programme allowed delegates to visit places of interest and some activities happening at the time and entertained to various traditional dances.
  • One striking experience was the Provincial Music Festivals that took place on Saturday, July 5th, 2003 at one of the schools in Kisumu. This competition was for secondary school category, and two schools that had done well in each district were now competing for the national finals. The competitions are organized by the ministry of education each year since 1959. There were two categories competing; choral music and traditional dances. Two groups for each category were chosen for the finals. In all, there are 8 provinces in Kenya.
  • Members also had the chance of a tour to Masaimara game reserve to see animals as well as the Masai people in their natural habitat on July 6th.
  • The 9th July was set free for touring Maseno University which is over 30 kilometres from Kisumu. This visit included interesting activities done on the Equator.
  • Various Kenyan traditional music groups performed each to entertain participant displaying a variety of Kenya’s rich musical heritage.


Folklore And Games As Integrated Arts Education

After a lengthy discussion on the above theme, participants accepted and agreed that:

  1. Every music lesson should start with a song, a dance or a game of some kind to arouse the interest of learners, especially in the lower years
  2. Folklore should be encouraged in the teaching of Music
  3. Teachers should be encouraged to use folklore from the area where the school is located so that they are relevant to the learners, especially those in rural schools.
  4. Teachers should try to use games in the teaching of singing especially in the lower classes to arouse interest in the pupils.
  5. Integration of music with other subject areas such as Drama, weaving, sculpture, drawing provides a context for music and therefore it becomes more relevant.
  6. There are different approaches to teaching Music in an integrated situation
  • all subject areas can be included in a single music lesson
  • using music to teach other subject areas

     7. Teachers need to understand that African Music does not operate in a vacuum but has a context.

Technology & Folklore

The discussion under this theme centred on the need to use technology in the music teaching.

This technology includes the use of radios and cassettes in the teaching of traditional music. The following were the main recommendations under this theme:

a) Teachers should bring traditional music into the classroom. To achieve this, teachers need to do research and learn traditional songs and dances from ethnic groups and bring the music and dances into the classroom.

b) National broadcasting stations (both the television and radios) which use taxpayers’ money, should strive to promote national indigenous music and dances rather than promoting foreign music. A survey done in Kenya indicated that over 900/0 of the music played on the national radio promoted foreign music. In the same – line, members were also concerned with the music being played by the Police and Army bands during state functions. Most of their music is foreign. The solution to this problem was the need for governments to come up with policies to promote culture through Music and Dance.


One major component of PASMAE is the introduction of Musical Arts Teams in its member countries. The aim of MAT Cells is to allow MUSIC ARTS teachers identify problems in the teaching of Music, and work out solutions through classroom research and interaction with other MAT Cells. This sharing of information is through a network of MAT cell leaders who submit reports to the MAT cell coordinator, who also shares this information with the rest of the MAT Cell leaders through Internet or posting.

MAT Cell also encourages teachers to do research in their countries on the teaching of Music and share this information with the rest. During this year’s PASMAE, MAT Cell leaders submitted reports of their experiences in the past six months. Common problems were identified to all the countries present, and members discussed on solutions to the common problems (see appendix 2). This will become the task for MAT Cell leaders for the next six months after which each member will have to produce a report to the coordinator who will distribute the information to all the MAT Cell members.

Among the common problems in Music teaching in Africa were the following:

1. Shortage of time allocated to Music and placement of the period in the daily timetable. In most countries, Music is only given 1 period per week.

2. Music is combined with other subjects such as Practical Arts where there is Music, drama, Arts to make one learning area. This approach was seen to be detrimental to music because the whole integrated subject is only given one period.

3. An observation was made that teachers were having problems in teaching one learning area because it means that they should be masters in all the five areas of drama, art, music, drawing technology, a thing which is not easy to achieve. But also in terms of time, one period per week for all the components makes the whole arrangement unrealistic.


1. Musical Arts Education should focus on indigenous musical traditions of the country because those traditions are peculiar to that nation. If the country does not promote its own indigenous music through the formal curriculum, the future generation will not know it.

2. There are challenges ahead with the approach taken by PCAR to integrate subject areas into learning areas. Major problems to emerge are:

Time factor becomes a problem since many subjects are lumped together into a single learning area

3. Teachers need to be competent in all the subject areas which constitute a single learning area. This is a problem in many countries that are implementing Outcome-Based

Education (OBE) which Malawi has adopted in its proposed Primary Curriculum Framework.

4. Experiences in others countries show that besides having Music education in all schools, there are some special government schools where music is taught in full. Many countries have National Associations in Musical Arts Education

5. On “What to teach in the Schools”, PASMAE members resolved that research should be encouraged so that music books should be written and be used as resources from various countries. It was learnt that much of the music research has been done by foreigners.

6. On the issue of “Staff Notation”, delegates recommended that it should be taught but in later years of the primary school. Although many teachers cannot read and write music, it was evident that most of them can sing, tell stories and dance – meaning that they are still good musicians.


1. Many countries in Africa have well-qualified Music personnel in higher positions in the Ministry of Education, Culture, as well as higher learning institutions such as Teacher training Colleges. and Universities. Such arrangements help in placing music at the right perspective especially at policy levels. Malawi has a long way to go to achieve this kind of arrangement.

2. Malawi still has policies that prevent university students from majoring Music in spite of the fact that the Ministry of Education introduced Music as a subject in secondary schools in Malawi in 2000.

3. The attitude to undermine traditional Malawi music as well as musical instruments, over western music poses a great challenge if Malawian music and culture are to be promoted.,

4. The absence of traditional Music festivals and competitions for schools (primary, secondary and college levels) creates a vacuum to start appreciating and getting into the traditional Malawian music. Many countries in Africa have these activities which are annual events, and Ministries of Education and Culture play a crucial role in such events.


It is likely that the approach taken by PASMAE to addressing issues affecting the teaching of Musical Arts Education will have far-reaching benefits to Africa as a whole, and to individual countries in particular. African music will have to be redefined to reflect a true sense of African Music if that is possible. More importantly, grass root research findings will come to the surface and be utilized by others through the MAT Cell approach. In this way, countries whose music was not known will have a platform to share with the rest of the world.

Malawi hopes to benefit much from this association with PASMAE. There will be need eventually to introduce more MAT Cells across the country so that minute problems encountered in different parts of the country could contribute towards solving the national macro issues in this area of Music education.

Appendix 1



The official name of this Society shall be the Pan-African Society for Musical Arts Education, to be abbreviated as P AS MAE, and referred to in the Constitution as “P ASMAE” or “the Society”.

Nature of the Society

PASMAE will concern itself with the promotion of Musical Arts Education throughout Africa. It will constitute itself as an autonomous society that will operate on a non-profit basis and be the representative arm of Africa in International Society of Music Education (ISM E) .

Powers of the Society

P ASMAE derives its authority from its membership, who empower the Society to act on their behalf in advocacy, coordinating and advisory roles in matters concerning Musical Arts Education and its practice in Africa. It is furthermore bolstered by its status as an ISME affiliate, and in turn by ISME’s position relative to the IMC (International Music Council) and UNESCO. The Society is empowered by its members to raise funds and enter into transactions in pursuit of its objectives, as set out below.

PASMAE shall seek to obtain recognition from the AU (African Union), and through it from all African governments for the purposes of influencing continentally matters relating to effective and meaningful Musical Arts Education in Africa.

Objectives of the Society

The Society shall canvass the recognition and support of world as well as African bodies such as the African Union, UNESCO and the IMC in the execution of its objectives.

Individual African governments will also be approached to give encouragement to the formation of national music education associations where none currently exist, or to support the affiliation of any such society, as the case may be, with P ASMAE, for the mutual benefits imperative.

The objectives of the Society shall be to facilitate and promote Musical Arts Education in Africa through

1. advancing the research, study and understanding of African music.

2. informing the governments of African countries on the values of Musical Arts Education for:

a. the conservation as well as modem advancement of the cultural heritage of African peoples and societies

b. the enhancement of the cultural integrity and human pride of African peoples and societies

c. the positive representation and presentation of African human genius and mental civilizations

d. the excitation and overall stimulation of creativity

e. the mental stability and physical health of the individual.

3. assisting music educators in Africa in the preservation and teaching and practice of knowledge of the music cultures of African societies which will enable inter-cultural respect, understanding and cooperation.

4. guiding and facilitating the teaching and understanding of the music of other world

cultures in Africa for the overall world, human understanding and cultural respect.

5. acting as a clearinghouse for Musical Arts Education in Africa.

6. encouraging and supporting the development and production of appropriate materials for lifelong Musical Arts Education.

7. developing creative artists who will be capable of promoting knowledge about the content, practice and meaning of African musical arts and artists.

8. encouraging the sharing of knowledge and experience relative to Musical Arts Education in Africa with the rest of the world.


Any property and possessions of the Society shall be deemed as/being held in trust for the membership and professional advice shall be sought as to the best way in which to utilise the Society’s investments, so as to maximally achieve its objectives.


Membership of the Society shall be open to all categories of persons engaged in Musical Arts Education, its research, promotion and dissemination in Africa irrespective of age, sex, race, religion, language or nationality. The Executive Committee shall review appropriate categories and conditions of membership of the Society as the need arises. Such categories and conditions shall be approved by the General Assembly.

Structure of the Society

The structure of the Society shall include its General Assemblies, its Executive Committee, and election procedures, its Secretariat, its Advisory Committee and its National Representatives and affiliated national bodies.

Executive Committee

The Executive Committee shall be the legal representative of the Society and as such shall hold and administer all property, funds and affairs of the Society. Provisions for the regulation of the internal affairs of the Society shall be specified in the Bylaws of the Society.

The Executive Committee shall comprise of the:

President, who shall be the Chairperson of the Executive Committee; Three Vice-Presidents, who shall be geographically dispersed; Secretary-General Assistant Secretary-General and Treasurer.

These six elected officers constitute the Society’s Executive. In electing them, issues of efficiency, accessibility and geographic spread should be taken into account.

In order to realize the Objectives of the Society, the Executive Committee shall:

  1. oversee regular and special conferences;
  2. issue such publications as may be deemed necessary;
  3. establish and/or recommend to the General Assembly the establishment of Special Committees and/or the appointment of special functionaries as appropriate for carrying out the work of the Society;
  4. act on behalf of the Society on all matters of relating to governments, other organizations, institutions and persons;
  5. have at least one statutory meeting per biennium
  6. authorize such other activities as may be appropriate to achieve the purpose of the Society.

Advisory Committee

The Advisory Committee comprises

The National representatives from all possible African countries, and responsible to ex-co for promoting the image and status of P ASMAE and for coordinating PASMAE objectives and activities in their respective countries.

The appointed expects:

  • The Director Educational Resources, responsible for generating, producing and disseminating educational materials;
  • The Director MAT Cells, for coordinating the activities and disseminating the products of the MAT Cells;
  • The Director Music Technology, for the planning of increasing utilization and capacity building in the area of Music Technology;
  • The Databank operator, for the efficient collection and documentation of materials strategic to the achievement of objectives.

General Assemblies

Members shall be convened in a General Assembly at each biennial conference of the Society, which biennial conferences shall be held ahead of the biennial ISME conferences.

Provisions governing meetings of the PASMAE General Assembly are specified in the Bylaws of the Society.

Special meetings and General Assemblies may be convened for specific purposes – for example, in the case of Dissolution, as described under that clause below.

Election Procedures

The election and/or appointment of officers of the Society and the members of the Executive Committee is specified in the Bylaws of the Society.


Ex-co Establishers a secretariat and appoints an operations manager. The Secretariat serve as the administrative and information centre for the Society, and the operations manager deals with the day to day administrative and financial affairs of the society.


The Society shall operate a bank account with an international bank to be determined by the Executive Committee. There shall be two out of at least three authorised signatories to the bank account. All withdrawals from the Society’s bank account must have the approval of the President. The operations manager will prepare annual financial statements for submission to a registered auditor.

Affiliated National Bodies

Although the Mrican-continental arm of ISME, the Society shall be free, on the recommendation of its Executive Committee, and with the approval of its General Assembly, to affiliate with such other continental and regional and national organizations as may seem mutually desirable. The Society shall also encourage national Musical Arts Education bodies in countries across the continent to affiliate to P ASMAE.


Amendments to this Constitution may be adopted by a two-thirds majority of Voting Delegates casting votes in the General Assembly. The text of any amendment proposed by a member shall be accompanied by the name and signature of the proposing member and the name and signature of the seconding member, and shall be received by the Secretary-General at least 120 days prior to the meeting of the General Assembly at which it is to be considered. The text of any proposed amendment to the Constitution to be considered at a meeting of the General Assembly shall be provided to each member of the Society by the Secretary-General at least 30 days prior to the meeting.


The dissolution of the Society may be pronounced only at a General Assembly specifically convened for that purpose. A two-thirds majority of the Voting Delegates casting votes shall be required to dissolve the Society.

Any assets remaining to the Society shall be disposed of by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Executive Committee. Such assets shall be given over to one or more non-profit organisations pursuing similar objectives as P ASMAE. In no event may any portion of such assets be distributed among the members of the Society.


Bylaw I. Membership Categories and Dues

1. Categories of membership shall include, but not be limited to:

a. Honorary Life

b. Individual music educator/researcher/promoter in Africa

c. Library

d. Institutional in Africa or elsewhere, concerned with education in Music arts

e. Organisational

f. Patron

2. The conditions, rights and privileges of the various categories of membership shall be specified by the Executive Committee.

3. Dues for the various categories of membership shall be fixed by the Executive Committee within limits to be established by the General Assembly.

4. Bimanual membership of the Society shall begin in the first calendar year after the final acceptance of this Constitution. Renewals shall be solicited ahead of the beginning of every subsequent calendar year.

5. An individual or organization may be solicited and appointed by the Secretary-General to serve as the Society’s reporter for any African country or geographic area.

Bylaw II. General Assembly

1. Members of the Society shall be notified of the time and place of each meeting of the General Assembly by the Secretary-General at least 60 days prior to the meeting. Each member of the Society shall be considered a member of the General Assembly.

2. The agenda for an ordinary session of the General Assembly shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

a. A report by the President on behalf of the Executive Committee on the activities of the Society;

b. A financial report

c. Reports by Special Committees, Study Groups or Commissions as requested by the Executive Committee;

d. The establishment of limits of dues for the various categories of membership;

e. The election of the President-Elect and national/Regional Representatives of the Executive Committee;

f. An announcement of the date and place of the next meeting of the General Assembly.

3. Any member of the Society shall have the right to propose and second resolutions. The text of any resolution proposed by a member shall be accompanied by the name and signature of the proposing member and the name and signature of the seconding member, and shall be received by the Secretary at least 48 hours prior to the meeting of the General Assembly at which the resolution is to be considered.

4. In the election of President-Elect and the National/Regional Representatives of the Executive Committee, each member of the Society shall have the right to vote in the General Assembly. In all other matters, voting shall be by country, and each country represented in the General Assembly shall have one vote. The Voting Delegate for each country shall be selected at a meeting of the members of the Society present from that country. The name of the Voting Delegate from each country shall be delivered to the Secretary-General prior to the convening of the General Assembly. In the event of a dispute as to who holds the right to vote for a country, a decision shall be rendered by the Executive Committee.

5. Voting for president-Elect and for the national/Regional Representatives of the Executive Committee shall be by secret, written ballot. All other voting in the General Assembly shall be conducted by a show of hands, except that a secret, written ballot shall be taken on any issue at the request of at least one Voting Delegate.

6. Unless otherwise specified, all actions by the General Assembly shall require a simple majority of the votes cast.

7. In the event of parity of votes, the vote of the presiding officer shall be decisive.

8. Issues concerning rules of order or procedure pertaining to meetings of the General Assembly, the Executive Committee or other official bodies of the Society shall be decided by the presiding officer.

Bylaw III. Officers

1. The officers of the Society shall be the President, the 3 Vice-Presidents, the Secretary-General and the Assistant Secretary-General. The officers of the Society shall also function as the Executive Committee of the Executive Committee and as the Finance Committee of the Society.

2. The President shall be the official representative of the Society. The President shall direct and supervise the activities of the Society and consult regularly with the officers.

Appendix 2